What is an Instrument Landing System (ILS)?

Jinen Gada

21 Sep 2022

An instrument Landing System (ILS) is defined as a precision runway approach aid based on two radio beams which together provide pilots with both vertical and horizontal guidance during an approach to land.

It uses a combination of radio signals to enable a safe landing even during challenging conditions such as low visibility.

The ILS system provides both course and altitude guidance to a specific runway. This system is used to execute a precision instrument approach procedure or precision approach. An instrument landing system (ILS) facility is a highly accurate and dependable means of navigating to the runway in IFR conditions.

The first ILS system tests began in the U.S.A. in 1929.

In weather conditions where the cloud ceiling is low and the visibility factors are bad, it enables the aircraft to approach the runway low and land safely with electronic devices.

It is the system that greatly facilitates the landing of pilots when visibility is very low, especially in foggy and snowy weather. This system is not required for airports established in flat and fog-free areas.

The airport where the ILS system will be located should have a geographical location that does not affect the broadcast performance of the system. The Signal generation area needs corrected terrain. The environmental terrain conditions of the location of the airport must be suitable.

The Instrument Landing System provides an approach path for the exact alignment and descent of an aircraft on the final approach to a runway. The pilot receives guidance information through a ground-based directional transmitter which is the localizer, providing horizontal guidance, and the glide-slope, providing vertical guidance.

ILSs are referred to as ‘Precision Approaches’ because it guides the aircraft both vertically and laterally.

How ILS Operates?

ILS works by beaming two radio transmissions of different frequencies up from the landing runway, one of 90 Hz and one of 150 Hz. A radio beacon called a localiser is normally built at the end of the runway with multiple pairs of directional antennas.

Localisers are responsible for the horizontal guidance of the aircraft. On the aircraft, an ILS receiver interprets the information and reports which side the aeroplane is situated on to allow the pilot to adjust accordingly. When both signals are overlapping, the aeroplane is flying perfectly down the centre of the course to the runway.

A glideslope antenna provides vertical guidance and operates the same as a localiser which is turned on its side. It also uses 90 Hz and 150 Hz frequencies which are interpreted by the ILS receiver on an aircraft.

ILS is a navigation assistance system that allows the aircraft to approach the runway with precision.

This is approximately 3 degrees to the horizon which gives the aircraft a descent rate of approximately 500 feet per minute. To align the aircraft to the runway centerline, the difference in depth of modulation is considered.

If all the Instrument Landing System components are available together with an approved approach mechanism, then the precision approach is executed by the pilot.


This type of system approach is very accurate.It is used to help the pilot during the landing and approach of the aircraft.It helps the pilot to watch the runway and the airports when there is finite visibility.It helps to increase situational awareness and safety measures.It guides to the aircraft runway in both vertical and horizontal planes.


Due to the localized, glide slope beams moving objects, vehicles, and other big reflecting objects produces interference, this generated interference reduces the directional signal’s strength.

ILS technology has been around for a long time. It remains the most common system used today, but there have been (and are) alternatives.

Aviation technologies are developing day by day and air transport is becoming the rapidly rising star of the transportation industry. Navigation and approach systems play a significant role in the safe flight and landing of the aircraft.

Satellite technology and GPS today provide a viable alternative, and several systems have been implemented. GPS-based systems are available in several regions as support for ILS navigation.

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Air India Express posts a net loss for the first time in 7 years

Jinen Gada

21 Sep 2022

The Covid-19 pandemic, which disrupted planned international services, caused Air India Express, which flies primarily between India and the Gulf states, to post a net loss for the first time in seven years.

According to the documents it submitted to the Registrar of Companies, the airline reported a net loss of Rs 72.33 crore in FY22 compared to a net profit of Rs 98.21 crore in FY21 (ROC).

On January 27 this year, Tata Group took control of Air India and its subsidiary Air India Express. A merger between Air India and AirAsia India, another airline owned by the Tata group, is currently taking place.

Before FY22, Air India Express was in the red in FY15, when it posted a net loss of Rs 61 crore.

The second and third waves of the pandemic hampered market recovery, especially in the regional international markets—Air India Express’s mainstay—the airline claimed in its documents submitted to the RoC to explain the FY22 results.

Countries continued to have varying levels of travel restrictions during FY22, and the budget carrier mentioned that international flights continued to be conducted under VBM (Vande Bharat Mission) and air bubble arrangements.

"The airline, as such, continued with its business continuity measures, by shifting capacity in alignment with demand patterns, keeping a close watch on route profitability, continuing with cutbacks in employee salaries, and focusing on cargo.The quantum increase in cargo this fiscal year (FY22) is attributed primarily to the 300 plus cargo-in-cabin flights (P2C) that were operated during the lockdown period. Each P2C flight could carry a cargo payload of approximately 15 Tons."Air India Express

The pandemic forced India to suspend international flights from March 2020 to March 2022. As a result of Covid restrictions, the airline formed bilateral air bubble arrangements with several nations during these two years.

According to the carrier, these measures allowed the company to contain its net loss in FY22. During FY21, its parent company Air India, which has been losing money for many years, reported a net loss of Rs 9,556 crore.

Air India Express posts a net loss for the first time in 7 years

Due to travel restrictions and bans imposed by many countries during the second wave of the pandemic, Air India Express said that its passenger load factor of 59.9% in FY22 is "notable".

The company was able to contain its net loss to Rs 72.33 crore in FY22, the carrier mentioned. Its parent company Air India — which has been making losses for many years — reported a net loss of Rs 9,556 crore in FY21.

ALSO READ - Air India Express plans to add 4 Boeing 737 to keep up with rising demand

Air India Express operated 10,172 flights in FY22, of which only 190 were domestic services. There are 24 Boeing 737 planes in Air India Express' fleet. 

Air India Express has 24 Boeing 737 planes in its fleet.

ALSO READ - Air India Express plans massive international expansion in the next 5 years

It operates flights from India to 15 foreign cities: Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ras-Al-Khaimah, Al Ain, Muscat, Salalah, Bahrain, Doha, Kuwait, Dammam, Riyadh, Jeddah, Singapore, and Kuala Lumpur.

Its total income and total expenses were Rs 3,522 crore and Rs 3,251 crore, respectively, in FY22. With 2.29 million passengers transported by Air India Express in FY22 compared to 1.47 million in FY21, there was a 56% increase in passenger volume. During FY22, revenue from cargo carriage went up by about 58%, taking the net revenue to Rs 209 crore against Rs 132 crore for FY21.

(With Inputs from Business Standard)

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IAF to induct 'Made in India' light combat helicopter (LCH) in October

Jinen Gada

21 Sep 2022

In a major boost to 'Make in India' in defence, the Indian Air Force (IAF) is going to induct the indigenous light combat helicopter (LCH) at Jodhpur on October 3.

The new chopper getting inducted into the force is capable of aerial combat and will help the force combat slow-moving aircraft, drones and armoured columns during conflicts.

The induction ceremony will be led by Defence minister Rajnath Singh who has played a crucial role in progressing cases for buying indigenous platforms for forces.

LCH is on its maiden flight at the HAL Airport, Bangalore.

The helicopter manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is suited to perform the roles of Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR), Destruction of Enemy Air Defence (DEAD), Counter Insurgency (CI) operations, taking on slow-moving aircraft, and Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs), high altitude bunker busting operations.

LCH has a narrow fuselage because of the tandem cockpit configuration for the pilot and co-pilot gunner. It has several stealth features, armour protection, night attack capability and crash-worthy landing gear for better survivability. LCH is a 5.5-tonne class combat helicopter designed and developed by the Defence public sector undertaking Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL).

It is also an effective asset to counter slow-moving aircraft and Remotely-Piloted Aircraft (RPAs) and can be deployed in high-altitude bunker busting operations, and counter-insurgency operations both in the jungle and urban environments. It can effectively support ground forces in various combat scenarios.

IAF to induct 'Made in India' light combat helicopter (LCH) in October

Army Technology information indicates that this LCH made by HAL has a maximum takeoff weight of 5,500kg. It has a 2,600kg cargo capacity. The RWS-300 radar warning sensor, MAW-300 missile approach warning sensor, and LWS-310 laser warning sensor are all installed on the helicopter.

Up to eight Helina (Helicopter-launched Nag missiles) anti-tank guided missiles, four French MBDA Mistral short-range air-to-air missiles, or four rocket pods for 68mm/70mm rockets can be carried on its stub wings.

The automated cannon of this LCH can fire 750 rounds per minute across a useful range of 2,000 metres. Such features make it a formidable attack helicopter.

Army Technology information indicates that this LCH made by HAL has a maximum takeoff weight of 5,500kg. It has a 2,600kg cargo capacity.

Two HAL/ Turbomeca Ardiden 1H1 (Shakti) turboshaft engines power the HAL LCH. A maximum continuous power output of 1,067kW is claimed. Its 20-mm turret guns, mounted on its nose can rotate 110 degrees.

It also has self-sealing fuel tanks and bulletproof windshields, along with built-in crashworthiness of bottom structures, crew seats, fuel tanks, and landing gear. It is equipped with infrared suppression systems and flare and chaff dispensers.

Out of the 15, the Indian Air Force will get 10, and the Indian Army 5. The LCH is a dedicated combat helicopter designed and developed indigenously for the first time in India. It can land and take off from an altitude of 5,000 metres with weapons and fuel, the officials said.


The choppers have been flown extensively in Ladakh and the desert sector to meet the requirements of the armed forces.

ALSO READ - In what can be termed a first, women pilots to fly Chinook supply sorties

The IAF has inducted multiple helicopters to its fleet in the last three-four years with the induction of the Chinooks, Apache attack helicopters and now the LCHs. The IAF is now also deploying women pilots in Chinook choppers carrying routine supply missions to the northern and eastern borders.

The defence ministry says that 45% of the value of LCH is made in India, and that number will rise over time to more than 55%. IAF and the army are expected to need a total of 160 LCHs, so HAL is likely to get more orders.

The helicopter will be deployed near the Pakistan border in Rajasthan in its first adventure.

LCH is on the government’s “positive indigenisation list,” which aims to ban the import of different types of weapons, systems, and ammunition over the next five to seven years to increase self-reliance in defence. In the last two years, the government has banned the import of 310 defence items by putting them on three different lists.

ALSO READ - Indian Army to get 6 AH-64E Apache attack helicopters

IAF has recently gotten 22 American heavy-duty Apache attack helicopters which are loaded with Hellfire and Stinger missiles. Apart from that we also employ the Russian Mi-17 V5 equipped with Israeli NLOS (non-line of sight) missiles.

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Boeing to outsource corporate jobs to India's TCS; cuts 150 finance jobs in the US

Radhika Bansal

21 Sep 2022

Boeing said Tuesday, September 20 that about 150 jobs nationwide will be cut in the first batch of layoffs, with more to come next year and thereafter. The first layoff notices will go out in October.

Boeing told non-union corporate staff in an all-hands virtual meeting this month that it will begin outsourcing finance and accounting jobs to Tata Consultancy Services of India.

“The Finance team is planning for lower staffing levels as it simplifies processes, improves efficiency and shares select work with an outside partner,” Boeing said in a statement, adding that it “will assess future impacts as the process continues in the coming years.”

Boeing to outsource more corporate jobs to India; cuts 150 finance jobs in the US

“It was kind of a shock the way they rolled it out,” said one senior Boeing finance employee, who asked for anonymity to retain his job. “They had the all-hands enterprise meeting and then four days later everyone was moved into new organizations with new managers.”

Boeing’s finance group pre-pandemic consisted of about 6,000 employees companywide, according to the company. At least 1,000 are in the Puget Sound region, the finance employee said. The announcement has left many people hanging, wondering if their jobs will be among those cut but not knowing for sure.

“We’re trying to strike a balance, being as transparent as we can without getting ahead of the work that we still have to do,” a Boeing spokesman said. “We’ve been frank with employees that we do expect lower staffing levels within finance. As soon as we know the details, we’ll share those.”

Boeing will begin outsourcing finance and accounting jobs to Tata Consultancy Services of India.

This week, Tata managers began directly consulting with Boeing finance and accounting managers to identify the precise work statement the Indian company will take over. Once that’s pinned down, Boeing will notify the individuals who are to be laid off, including some management employees.

Before their departure, those employees will be asked to train the Tata personnel in Boeing procedures to smooth the handover of the work. The planned layoffs are part of a broad and concerted Boeing effort in recent years to cut non-union corporate jobs.

“Several of our corporate functions, including Information Technology and Finance, have implemented changes to streamline their operations, resulting in lower staffing levels” in those areas, Boeing said.

Boeing’s finance group pre-pandemic consisted of about 6,000 employees companywide

That push began with moves to get rid of IT work that could be done more cheaply elsewhere and was not seen as central to Boeing’s business.

In 2013, Boeing began cutting 1,500 IT positions in the Puget Sound region. Last year, it outsourced to Dell another batch of IT work, eliminating 600 jobs across the company. Several years ago Boeing outsourced a range of low-level finance work to Genpact, a multinational company founded in India and with a large presence in that country.

According to the senior Boeing finance employee, Tata will take over some of the Genpact work, though Genpact will continue to do some other work for Boeing.

Boeing’s new Chief Financial Officer Brian West, who joined the company in August last year, has intensified the focus on cutting financial and accounting jobs. In November, he appointed Amy Rodrigues to lead the finance and accounting team, with a telling extension to her title: vice president of finance and finance transformation.

In 2013, Boeing began cutting 1,500 IT positions in the Puget Sound region.

Boeing corporate refers to the transformation as streamlining. To the affected employees, it’s simply downsizing. The downsizing comes as Boeing is scrambling in a tight labour market to hire mechanics to build planes and engineers to design them after a severe round of front-line job cuts during the global pandemic.

Boeing cut just over 20,000 jobs in 2020 companywide — 15,000 of those in Washington state — as the pandemic hit its commercial airplane business hard. Last year, it cut a further 1,000 jobs in Washington state.

ALSO READ - Boeing all set to up the production of its 787 Dreamliners

This year, as air travel demand returned and Boeing started to ramp up 737 MAX production in Renton and poured engineering resources into fixing the problems on the Boeing B787-900 and various defence projects, the company finally began rehiring and adding back jobs, mostly in engineering and manufacturing.

This year, as air travel demand returned and Boeing started to ramp up 737 MAX production in Renton

ALSO READ - FAA to formalize tighter oversight of new aircraft designs following deadly Boeing 737 MAX crashes

In the aftermath of two 737 MAX crashes in 2018 and 2019, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) pledged to scrutinize Boeing more closely and delegate fewer responsibilities to the company for aircraft certification. Last month, the U.S. government approved the first Boeing 787 Dreamliner for delivery in 2021.

ALSO READ - Boeing to resume 787 Dreamliner deliveries

Boeing halted deliveries in May 2021 after the FAA raised concerns about its proposed inspection method. In September 2020, the FAA said it was investigating manufacturing flaws in some 787 jetliners.

Taking the sting out of the relatively small number of white-collar layoffs ahead in finance, Boeing has “significantly increased hiring in engineering and manufacturing as market demand increases and we drive stability in production and invest in engineering and innovation.”

In September 2020, the FAA said it was investigating manufacturing flaws in some 787 jetliners.

“Overall, we have expanded the Boeing workforce by about 10,000 employees this year,” Boeing said. That still leaves Boeing down about 10,000 jobs relative to the workforce it had pre-pandemic.

Boeing in India

Boeing now has about 3,500 direct employees in India. The Boeing India Engineering & Technology Center in Bengaluru and Chennai undertakes complex advanced aerospace engineering work. Boeing has invested more than USD 200 million in the Bengalaru campus, its largest investment outside the United States.

The company has plans to develop an avionics manufacturing and assembly facility there — replacing an in-house capability that Boeing abandoned in 2003 and has been attempting to recreate since 2017.

Facing a shortage of engineers in the United States, and with its major engineering centre in Moscow closed since the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Boeing sees India as a key supplier of engineering talent.

Boeing this year named Tata Aerospace & Defense, India’s largest private aerospace manufacturer, a “2022 Supplier of the Year.”

Another 7,000 people in India are employed at Boeing’s suppliers, including the multinational conglomerate Tata Group, headquartered in Mumbai. Boeing this year named Tata Aerospace & Defense, India’s largest private aerospace manufacturer, a “2022 Supplier of the Year.”

ALSO READ - Boeing chose Tata Aerospace as its “Supplier of the Year”

That Tata division makes aircraft landing gear doors, vertical fins, floor beams, underwing and overwing panels, fuselages, secondary structures, and tail cones. A joint venture with Tata Group also produces AH-64 Apache helicopter fuselages in Hyderabad for military customers around the globe.

ALSO READ - Tata to soon provide this part to Boeing for their 737 models

Tata Consultancy Services, the Tata Group subsidiary taking over the Boeing finance jobs, is a major IT and financial services consulting company with about 600,000 employees worldwide. Its market capitalization stands at USD 140 billion, 60% larger than Boeing’s.

(With Inputs from The Seattle Times)

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Collaboration between Destinus and Brazilian on-demand charter flight broker to provide swift freight delivery flights


21 Sep 2022

A deal has been made between the hypersonic, hydrogen-powered aircraft developer Destinus and the Brazilian on-demand charter flight broker Flapper to establish high-speed cargo delivery flight routes between Europe and Latin America.

While the initial agreement will focus on developing routes for cargo flights, the companies may also explore the possibility of high-speed passenger flights between Europe and Latin AmericaDestinus’s senior business development manager, Martina Lofqvist, told FutureFlight

Martina Lofqvist | Source

According to a joint statement released by the two companies today, Destinus and Flapper have signed a letter of intent to "collaborate on a shared purpose to link the world effectively and sustainably."

But as of right now, according to Lofqvist, Destinus is concentrated on getting its hydrogen-powered hyperplane up and operating for freight operations.

Flight times between the two continents could be significantly shortened thanks to the hyperplane. With the hyperplane, a flight from Paris to Buenos Aires, for instance, could be completed in three to four hours rather than the current 13 to 14 hours it may take, according to Lofqvist. Time-sensitive cargo including medical supplies and emergency replacement components will be transported by Flapper using the new high-speed routes.

The Jungfrau, as the prototype vehicle being developed by Destinus, is known, would be a totally autonomous "hyperplane," as it stays well below the Karman line but gets pretty close to vacuum for aerodynamic reasons. The actual groundspeed will depend on several parameters and is not as easily stated, but they are aiming for speeds up to Mach 15 at a height of 60 kilometres. The aircraft will then re-enter and continue on its journey.


A spaceplane is a wing aircraft that can leave the ground, fly outside the atmosphere, and then return to the atmosphere using just its own propulsion and navigation. The most well-known is arguably the mysterious (as it is always termed) X-37B of the American government, which is allegedly employed for space-based testing by three-letter agencies.

This is all hypothetical and untested. According to Kokorich, the business flew a small-scale prototype last year that was roughly the length of a car. The guidance, navigation, and control systems that will enable the vessel to function independently are now being finalised.

With initial estimates topping Mach 15 and travelling between any two points on Earth in under two hours, Destinus is currently determining the precise speed at which it intends to cruise, but Lofqvist told FutureFlight that this estimate might be "a little bit overly optimistic."

Representation of a hypothetical flight path from Miami to Seoul | Destinus

This year, we plan to start ground and flight tests of ATR (air turbo rocket) engines with hydrogen as fuel, which we are developing ourselves. Like a turbojet, the ATR engine is an airbreathing jet engine. Due to its parameters, it is a suitable engine for both the subsonic and supersonic flight phases of our hyperplane. Later next year, we plan to fly the next iteration of the prototype with both ATR and a second hydrogen rocket engine. It will be the configuration for our commercial vehiclesMomentus founder and former CEO Mikhail Kokorich (Now Destinus) told TechCrunch earlier this year

Mikhail Kokorich | Siberian Times

Additionally, the hypersonic aircraft will emit no emissions because it will run on "green" hydrogen power, which is hydrogen fuel produced from renewable energy, making it a more environmentally responsible option than current transatlantic trips-Lofqvist elucidated.

Latin America is a key market to us. This partnership with Flapper will help us gain direct insight on the express cargo market and to explore new route options across the Atlantic Oceansaid Destinus CEO Mikhail Kokorich

The contract between Flapper and Destinus is the company's initial commitment to hypersonic flying. To promote regional, passenger-carrying flights in Latin America, Flapper recently also committed to purchase up to 30 hybrid-electric eSTOL aircraft from Electra as well as 25 of Jaunt Air Mobility's Jaunt Journey eVTOL aircraft. The business has also teamed up with Eve Air Mobility to build out the region's eVTOL air taxi networks.

Jaunt Air Mobility eVTOL | Representative | Jaunt Air Mobility

Destinus has so far built two prototype aircraft and tested both of them in flight, but the company hasn't yet broken the sound barrier or flown using hydrogen fuel. According to Lofqvist of FutureFlight, The Swiss are developing its first hydrogen-fed air turborocket (ATR) engine and constructing a test facility for it. By the end of this year, Destinus hopes to start testing the first hydrogen components on the ground.


ALSO READ - To near space and back, but this time “cargo” takes the front seat

In many countries, there are several prohibitions on autonomous and supersonic aircraft, and Destinus's ship would be both.

SOURCE(s) : FutureFlight.Aero | TechCruch

COVER: Destinus

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Cathay Pacific launches direct flight between Bengaluru - Hong kong

Jinen Gada

20 Sep 2022

Starting October 11, Cathay Pacific will fly direct between Bengaluru and Hong Kong with two weekly non-stop flights. Passengers travelling from the IT hub of India to Hong Kong will get benefitted from the launch of this new non-stop route.

The introduction of Cathay Pacific in the city will enhance India’s direct connectivity with Hong Kong and connect customers to popular destinations such as the USA, Australia, Japan, the Philippines and more.

Cathay Pacific, the home airline of Hong Kong, is opening up New International Routes. 

 “We are delighted to once again serve the residents of Bengaluru. As a group, we have had a long-standing history with the city and now we will be taking to the skies from the third-largest airport in India – Kempegowda International Airport on 11 October with Cathay Pacific.”Rakesh Raicar, Regional General Manager, South Asia, Middle East and Africa.

"A wide-body aircraft on this route will not only cater to the travel needs of corporate and leisure travellers but provide each segment with a cabin of choice and allow them to travel with enhanced comfort to Hong Kong and beyond. Moreover, launching Cathay Pacific in the city also gives us an opportunity to service our customers and partners, whilst providing them with a comfortable and a premium experience on our world-class products.Hong Kong is a key business and leisure destination and BLR Airport being the ‘New Gateway to India’, is delighted to have the Cathay Pacific group once again connecting Bengaluru to Hong Kong and beyond. It gives us immense pleasure to welcome their wide-body Boeing 777-300 aircraft that offers premium connectivity for passengers and cargo to multiple destinations in the Far East. It’s always been our endeavour to explore new partnerships and establish enhanced connectivity. With Cathay Pacific, we hope to grow stronger as a preferred hub for One World alliance partners with eight carriers choosing Bengaluru as their Southern India gateway."Satyaki Raghunath, Chief Strategy and Development Officer, Bangalore International Airport Ltd (BIAL)

The aircraft is configured with a three-class cabin configuration featuring Economy, Premium Economy and Business class, thus offering customers an array of cabin options to choose from that suits their needs.

Cathay Pacific will fly a Boeing 777-300ER on this route.

According to the information on Cathay’s official website, CX623 departs from Hong Kong at 20:55 on Mondays and Thursdays and arrives in Bengaluru at 00:20 the following day. Every Tuesday and Friday at 01:20, the same aircraft will depart Bengaluru and arrive in Hong Kong at 09:50.

This comes as the airline plans to restart operations from Bengaluru after they were temporarily suspended because of the pandemic.