Turkey’s Southwind Airlines Prohibited from Operating its 737MAX into Russia

Abhishek Nayar

09 Jun 2023

Southwind Airlines, based in Turkey, has been in the forefront of air travel, providing customers with efficient and dependable services. However, the recent restriction placed by US officials on the operating of the airline's Boeing 737 MAX aircraft in Russia has drawn major attention to the company.

Southwind Airlines: History

Southwind Airlines was established in 2022, just before Russia commenced its invasion of Ukraine. Only one of the airline's eight aircraft, an Airbus A321 now registered as TC-GRD, was not previously operated by a Russian airline, according to planespotters.net data. An Airbus A321, presently registered as VQ-BOD (formerly at Nordwind Airlines), and a Boeing 737 MAX-8, currently registered as VQ-BGW (ex-S7 Airlines), are set to join the carrier's fleet.

Fleet Details

However, of the four 737 MAX-8s currently listed in Southwind Airlines' fleet, one, registered as TC-GRM, has not flown in the preceding three months. Another, with the registration TC-GRK, has not flown since April 2023. Interestingly, the aircraft was on its way from Boeing Field/King County International Airport (BFI) to Keflavik International Airport (KEF), Iceland, for a usual fuel stop on the way to Turkey. Since April 13, 2023, it has been stuck at KEF. According to flightradar24.com, another Southwind Airlines Boeing 737 MAX-8, registered as TC-GRO, performed the same voyage, continuing from KEF to Antalya Airport (AYT) in March 2023. That plane was last spotted in Russia on June 2, 2023, when it flew from Novosibirsk Tolmachevo Airport (OVB) to AYT. Since then, it has not returned to the nation.  The airline's last 737 MAX-8, TC-GRJ, has not flown to or from Russia since leaving Ufa International Airport (UFA) on June 2, 2023. Southwind Airlines has been operating between Turkey and Russia since then, utilizing an Airbus A321neo, registered as TC-GRE, and an A321, registered as TC-GRD. Its wide-body aircraft, a pair of Airbus A330-200s and one Boeing 777-300ER, have also been absent from routes to the belligerent country.

The Ban on Southwind Airlines in Russia

Southwind Airlines has been barred from flying its Boeing 737 MAX-8 aircraft into Russia, according to sources in the Russian daily Izvestia. Although the US cannot directly restrict the airline from operating the 737 MAX between Turkey and Russia, there are indications that US authorities have threatened sanctions or added the carrier's 737 MAXs to the sanctioned asset list. Southwind Airlines or any of its aircraft are currently not included on the US Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) sanctions list.

Southwind Airlines' Implications

Southwind Airlines faces serious ramifications as a result of the ban. This has a significant impact on the airline's operations and profits since it eliminates a critical route. The Boeing 737 MAX aircraft are new additions to Southwind Airlines' fleet, and the restriction inhibits their usage, resulting in financial losses and potential reputational damage.

Alternatives to Southwind Airlines

Southwind Airlines is looking at alternative solutions to offset the impact of the Boeing 737 MAX ban on flights to Russia. This entails assessing various aircraft types that meet international safety requirements and are authorised for operation in various nations. In addition, the airline is evaluating new routes and locations in order to maintain operations and customer satisfaction.


Southwind Airlines' ban on flying its Boeing 737 MAX aircraft to Russia has raised questions about the airline's operations and ties with the Russian market. The involvement of US authorities complicates the matter, increasing the possibility of sanctions or asset listing. Southwind Airlines must address safety concerns, investigate alternatives, and endeavor to regain the trust of passengers and regulatory agencies.

With Inputs from AeroTime

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American Airlines to Provide Free WIFI for T-Mobile Customers

Abhishek Nayar

09 Jun 2023

T-Mobile recognizes the necessity of a solid network foundation in an era where reliable and fast accessibility are critical. T-Mobile has greatly increased its network coverage and improved its overall service quality through major expenditures. Furthermore, the firm has actively explored alliances with other significant industry players, solidifying its market position and expanding its services.

T-Mobile's Network Investments and Partnerships

T-Mobile, formerly an obscure participant in the telecommunications industry, has made significant strides in recent years, establishing itself as a viable competitor to industry behemoths such as AT&T and Verizon. T-Mobile's significant expenditures in network infrastructure and key partnerships have contributed to this change. Notably, T-Mobile has expressed a strong interest in partnering with airlines and forming alliances that benefit both the firm and its consumers. T-Mobile's dedication to establishing a strong network has fueled its recent success. The corporation has made significant investments in increasing network coverage, improving infrastructure, and adopting cutting-edge technology. T-Mobile has been able to provide its customers with a dependable and fast network experience as a result of these improvements. T-Mobile has also formed strategic alliances with a variety of organisations in order to expand its market position. T-Mobile has earned vital resources, experience, and client bases through cooperating with industry giants. These collaborations have been critical to T-Mobile's growth and competitive advantage.

The Emergence of T-Mobile as a Competitor to AT&T and Verizon

T-Mobile has emerged as a formidable challenger to industry heavyweights AT&T and Verizon because of its constant pursuit of network upgrades and strategic alliances. T-Mobile has successfully recruited users and carved out a large market share with its vast network coverage and a variety of innovative offerings. T-Mobile's customer-centric strategy and commitment to providing an extraordinary experience have resonated with customers, allowing the firm to challenge the dominance of its larger rivals. T-Mobile's interest in airline partnerships originates from the company's desire to provide its consumers with greater connection and convenience even while they are in the air. Recognizing the growing need for connectivity during flights, T-Mobile has begun to provide complimentary WIFI services to its clients.

American Airlines Collaboration

One major partnership is with American Airlines, a well-known worldwide airline. T-Mobile and American Airlines have partnered to provide free Wi-Fi on select flights. This collaboration allows T-Mobile users to stay connected while travelling, stream entertainment, and surf the internet. Even more exciting than T-Mobile, American revealed that it will be the first US airline to provide internet capable of video streaming on 100% of its mainline aircraft. According to the airline, "Customers travelling the globe to their dream international destinations should be able to enjoy faster Wi-Fi speeds and a more reliable service for all their connectivity needs, thanks to increased bandwidth planned for American's widebody aircraft." The pricing for its WIFI packages was not stated in today's statement, although American has lately offered some of the most expensive WIFI packages, particularly on long-haul flights. In-flight WIFI on flights to South America might cost as much as $35 for the whole journey. Furthermore, despite promises made years ago, American has yet to implement free messaging for its passengers.

Expansion of T-Mobile's Complimentary Package

T-Mobile's dedication to providing outstanding service goes beyond its existing relationships. The firm is always looking for ways to increase its airline agreements so that more clients may experience complimentary WIFI throughout their trips. T-Mobile hopes to address the rising demand for seamless connectivity by expanding its coverage and availability, regardless of the airline consumers pick.

The Advantages of T-Mobile's Airline Partnerships

T-Mobile's affiliations with major airlines provide various benefits to both the firm and its consumers. T-Mobile gets exposure and a larger client base, while airline partners may provide a better travel experience, further distinguishing themselves in a competitive sector. Customers also like the simplicity of keeping connected throughout flights, which allows them to be productive or engaged during their travel.


T-Mobile's network infrastructure investments and strategic collaborations have propelled the company to the forefront of the telecommunications industry. T-Mobile has efficiently reacted to the increasing demands of its consumers by providing complimentary WIFI services during flights, thanks to its concentration on airline relationships. T-Mobile guarantees that a growing number of customers may benefit from seamless connectivity, boosting their travel experiences, by constantly extending its alliances.

With Inputs from Business Traveller

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American Airlines Becomes the Largest Boeing 787-8 Operator in the World

Abhishek Nayar

09 Jun 2023

In the realm of aviation, American Airlines just passed a critical milestone. On May 19, the airline welcomed its 37th Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner, cementing its position as the largest operator of this extraordinary aircraft series. American Airlines now operates a more substantial fleet of 787-8s than All Nippon Airways, the Dreamliner's launch customer.

American Airlines Acquisition of the 37th Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner

The recent arrival of American Airlines' 37th Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner, registered as N886BR, is a great milestone for the carrier. Because of its multiple advantages, the Dreamliner series, noted for its innovative technology and remarkable performance, has garnered appeal among airlines worldwide. American Airlines' investment in extending its Dreamliner fleet illustrates the carrier's dedication to modernizing its aircraft lineup and fulfilling shifting traveller preferences. As the first client to receive the Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner, All Nippon Airways (ANA) has amassed an amazing fleet of 36 aircraft. While American Airlines currently has more Dreamliners in its fleet than ANA, both airlines continue to recognize the enormous value and benefits provided by this unique aircraft. According to FlightRadar24.com, the aircraft flew from Victorville to Dallas Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) on May 31, then to Tokyo Narita Airport (NRT) on June 2 (also ANA's home airport).

The Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner's Importance

The Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner is a revolutionary aircraft that, with its cutting-edge design and superior technology, has revolutionized the aviation industry. It is the future wave of air travel, offering airlines and customers an unrivalled experience. The Dreamliner has various distinguishing features that set it apart from other types of aircraft. Its lightweight composite frame, sophisticated aerodynamics, and extremely efficient engines save fuel and cut carbon emissions significantly. The unique cabin design prioritizes passenger comfort, incorporating larger windows, enhanced lighting, and improved air quality to make the journey more pleasurable and relaxing.

The Fleet Expansion Strategy of American Airlines

The Importance of Airline Fleet Expansion

The development of an airline's fleet is critical to its growth and success. Airlines must guarantee that they have a modern and diversified fleet to satisfy changing customer expectations and new routes. American Airlines may boost capacity, improve operational efficiency, and maintain a competitive advantage in the market by growing its fleet.

American Airlines' Fleet Expansion Strategy

American Airlines has been aggressive in its fleet growth plan, always looking for new and improved aircraft. The arrival of the Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner is consistent with the airline's objective of providing great travel experiences to its customers. American Airlines seeks to deliver improved comfort, efficiency, and dependability across its worldwide network by investing in cutting-edge aircraft such as the Dreamliner.

Last month, American acquired three -8s. N882BL, the airline's 36th 787-8, began service a few days before N886BR, flying from DFW to Los Angeles (LAX) on May 28. The aircraft was manufactured in November 2021, transported to San Antonio in April 2022, stored until September 23, and finally provided to the airline a few weeks ago.

Other Significant Fleets

All Nippon Airways (ANA) was the Boeing 787's first client, getting its first -8 in September 2011. It was the largest operator until last month, with 36 ships in its fleet. The carrier's most recent -8 was delivered in May 2016, making it a little over seven years old. The smallest Dreamliners are used for numerous local trips, but they are also used to go to Los Angeles. Qatar Airways maintains a sizable fleet of -8s, totaling 30 aircraft. According to Ch-aviation, the last time ANA acquired a -8 was in 2016, on July 19, to be exact. Qatar received its first aircraft in October 2012, and by the end of the year, it had five. From March through November of 2014, the carrier got the most -8s, nine in all.

Benefits of Operating the Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner

Fuel Efficiency and Reduced Operating Costs

The Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner's exceptional fuel efficiency is one of its key benefits. When compared to prior models, the utilization of new materials and technology, along with optimized engine performance, allows the aircraft to consume less fuel. This not only reduces airline operating expenses but also helps to create a greener and more sustainable aviation industry.

Improved Passenger Comfort and Experience

Airlines prioritize passenger satisfaction, and the Dreamliner excels at providing an exceptional travel experience. Passengers may enjoy a more pleasant and relaxed journey with larger windows that provide stunning views, enhanced cabin pressurization, lower noise levels, and expansive interiors. The modern in-flight entertainment systems and onboard amenities of the aircraft improve the entire passenger experience.

The Impact of American Airlines' Fleet Expansion

Increased Route Network and Connectivity

The expansion of American Airlines' Dreamliner fleet means more route options and enhanced connectivity for customers. The Dreamliner's long-range capabilities enable the airline to enter new markets and offer nonstop flights to popular locations. This expanding network provides opportunities for travellers to enjoy smooth and convenient global travel.

The Aviation Industry's Competitive Advantage

American Airlines gains a substantial competitive edge in the aviation sector by becoming the world's largest operator of the Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner. The sophisticated features of the Dreamliner, along with American Airlines' renowned service, establish the airline as a preferred choice for travellers looking for comfort, efficiency, and dependability. This accolade demonstrates American Airlines' dedication to innovation and client satisfaction.


The acquisition of American Airlines' 37th Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner marks a watershed milestone in the airline's history, establishing it as the world's largest operator of this cutting-edge aircraft. The superior technology, fuel economy, and passenger-centric characteristics of the Dreamliner contribute to a better travel experience for passengers. American Airlines is set to change the future of air travel with its planned fleet growth plans and dedication to providing great service.

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Lufthansa Subsidiary City Airlines Granted German AOC

Abhishek Nayar

09 Jun 2023

The Luftfahrt-Bundesamt (LBA) is responsible for regulating and supervising aviation operations throughout Germany. It maintains an exhaustive list of licensed airlines on file to ensure that safety and regulatory criteria are met. City Airlines, a Lufthansa subsidiary, is one of the major additions to this list. City Airlines just received AOC number D-425, allowing them to operate aircraft weighing more than 10 tons.

Luftfahrt-Bundesamt (LBA): Overview and Role

The Luftfahrt-Bundesamt (LBA) is Germany's Federal Aviation Office, and it is in charge of implementing aviation rules, regulations, and safety standards. It is the principal authority for awarding licences and certifications to German airlines. The fundamental goal of the LBA is to ensure the highest standards of safety and security in aviation travel. The list was most recently updated on June 7, 2023.

Licensed Airlines in Germany: Importance and Requirements

Passengers, travel agencies, and industry stakeholders can all benefit from the list of licensed airlines in Germany. It certifies that an airline has satisfied the LBA's strict criteria. To get a licence, an airline must demonstrate compliance with safety regulations, a strong organizational structure, and the financial capacity to operate sustainably.

City Airlines: Lufthansa's Newest Subsidiary

Lufthansa, one of Germany's largest and most recognized airlines, regulates City Airlines. City Airlines operates as a subsidiary of Lufthansa, benefiting from its extensive brand awareness, operational competence, and network. Lufthansa extends its market presence strategically by establishing subsidiaries to target certain niches or markets. "Founded in Munich in the summer of 2022, we want to offer our guests on short- and medium-haul routes an exceptional flight experience of proven Lufthansa quality," City Airlines states on its website, which currently provides basic information on the airline. "As a new airline in the Lufthansa Group, we combine Lufthansa's quality and the experience of Lufthansa CityLine with the dynamism of a young company," the website added. Meanwhile, City Airlines will receive an Airbus A319, registered as D-AILX, from Lufthansa, according to ch-aviation.com. The aircraft, which was formerly operated by Lufthansa CityLine, another regional subsidiary, is currently under maintenance.

AOC Number D-425: Meaning and Significance

The Air Operator Certificate (AOC) number D-425 is a significant achievement for City Airlines. It denotes that the airline has fulfilled the LBA's standards for operating aircraft weighing greater than 10 tons. This accreditation gives City Airlines legal permission to fly larger planes, increasing its operational capabilities and potential market reach.

Operating Aircraft Heavier than 10 Tons: Implications and Benefits

City Airlines currently has the AOC number D-425, allowing it to operate aircraft weighing more than 10 tons. This provides the airline with additional prospects, allowing it to service places that require larger planes. Operating bigger planes increases passenger capacity, cargo capacity, and possible fuel efficiency, leading to enhanced profitability and a competitive advantage.

Compliance with Safety and Regulatory Standards

The LBA conducts a thorough review of the AOC number D-425 application to guarantee compliance with safety and regulatory standards. City Airlines' operating operations, maintenance procedures, and crew training programmes are all thoroughly inspected. City Airlines demonstrates its commitment to passenger safety and adherence to industry best practices by satisfying these standards.

The Position of the German Pilot Union

The German pilot union Veenigung Cockpit (VC) has been highly critical of the announcement that Lufthansa is establishing a new airline. "At the moment, we are not seeing any realignment of the overall strategy." Only partial answers based on the previous model are repeatedly attempted. "As a VC, we recognize the need for consolidation and a holistic realignment of the Lufthansa Group," VC president Stefan Herth stated in a statement in March 2022. Previous claims by Carsten Spohr, CEO of Lufthansa, stated that the new airline would employ former Germanwings pilots, which terminated operations in 2020. Furthermore, it was observed that City Airlines would cover a broader range of Lufthansa's short-haul needs since an agreement between VC and Lufthansa resulted in a restriction on the kind of aircraft CityLine could operate commencing in 2026.

The newly founded airline would also have a cost advantage at two of Lufthansa's hubs, Frankfurt Airport (FRA) and Munich Airport (MUC). "Against the background of a lack of cockpit staff at group airlines and an increasing number of wet leases, dismissing several hundred experienced and highly qualified pilots is completely unsound," said Arne von Schneidemesser, vice president of VC, when Lufthansa fired Germanwings pilots in May 2022. Currently, VC and the airline are discussing a new deal, which includes "regulations on stress protection, a better work-life balance, a new remuneration structure for cockpit staff, and remuneration increases," according to the union. VC, on the other hand, alleged in a statement released on June 1, 2023, that Lufthansa "has not submitted a corresponding counter-offer that comprehensively addresses these demands for several weeks." 


The issuance of AOC number D-425 to City Airlines marks a significant milestone for the airline and the German aviation sector. City Airlines may utilize its permission to operate aircraft weighing more than 10 tons to extend its operations, strengthen its market presence, and provide enhanced connectivity to passengers. The LBA's strict control guarantees that the airline adheres to safety and regulatory requirements, boosting passenger confidence and the industry's reputation.

With Inputs from AeroTime

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Indian Government Denies United-Emirates Codeshare Flights on Indian Routes

Radhika Bansal

08 Jun 2023

The Indian government has denied an application by United Airlines to codeshare with Emirates on routes between the UAE and India claiming the proposed arrangement falls outside the existing United Arab Emirates (UAE)-India bilateral air services agreement, which does not allow for codeshare services by airlines with second-party airlines. Code-sharing is a normal practice in the airline industry and allows airlines to jointly market a route, helping them to expand their network and help fill their planes.

Emirates provides scheduled passenger flights between its Dubai hub and the Indian cities of Delhi InternationalKolkataAhmedabadMumbai InternationalHyderabad InternationalBangalore InternationalChennaiKochi International, and Thiruvananthapuram. It is the largest operator on the country pair and offers 61,206 seats per week each way across these routes on a total of 342 weekly flights.

In September 2022, United Airlines and Emirates announced a commercial agreement that resulted in United starting scheduled services between Newark and Dubai to feed traffic to and from 100 plus routes operated by Emirates and its low-cost sister carrier, flydubai. "Our hub Dubai essentially becomes a gateway for United to reach Asia, Africa and the Middle East," said Emirates president Tim Clark at the time.

"United approached the Indian government asking for permission to put their code on our flights from India but hasn’t been allowed by the government to do so," Clark told media in Istanbul this week. "India has always been a bit mysterious when it comes to giving access to Emirates. This stance doesn’t help anybody as it (India) is a country with high GDP growth and a large non-resident Indian population who wants to travel. I don’t think this stance does anybody a favour."

UAE Attempts to Change Bilateral Air Agreement

The UAE is attempting to alter a 2014 air services agreement with India, which presently limits the number of weekly seats an airline can operate between the two countries. The current weekly cap is 66,000, which Emirates wants to increase by 50,000. Thus far, the Indian government has shown little interest in altering the present arrangements, which provide a degree of protection to India-based carriers. Two months ago, Campbell Wilson, the CEO of Air India urged the government not to "open the floodgates" to foreign airlines, arguing that it was in the national interest to protect his airline.

While travel demand is on the rise, India has relatively less direct international air connectivity and overseas traffic is catered to mostly by foreign carriers with connecting flights. Against this backdrop, the government is working on developing an international aviation hub in the country while Air India and IndiGo are also expanding their international operations.

In other news, the Dubai government made an effort to make some changes in their bilateral air services agreement. But the Indian government also turned down this request of the Dubai government. They proposed so that the airlines of Dubai can penetrate well in India and get a better approach than before.

Emirates - United Codeshare

The two airlines announced a codeshare deal in September 2022, under which the US carrier could sell seats on Emirates flights. The American airline can do it on 27 destinations and 8 of these are coming under India. Another segment of the deal is that United Airlines can put their codes on the Emirates aircraft. This will allow the airline to get a share of all the sold tickets. This is a huge step to increase the airlines’ visibility and network all around. As a part of the codeshare application, United Airlines requested clearance to place its UA code on “Emirates flights operating from Dubai to points in the UAE and points beyond the UAE across Africa, Middle East, India, and other points in South East Asia, and to facilitate international air travel between these points and the U.S. and points beyond the US.”

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Shares of HAL Surges Over 3% as GE to Reportedly Co-Produce Jet Engines in India

Radhika Bansal

08 Jun 2023

Shares of Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) surges over 3% on June 7 as General Electric (GE) will reportedly be entering into a pact with HAL to co-produce jet engines in India. At 09:40 am, the defence company’s stock was quoting at INR 3,500.90, up 2.45%. The stock was trading with volumes of 43,733 shares so far on June 7, as compared with its five-day average of 67,071 shares, implying a fall of 35%.

The Biden administration has given permission, for GE to co-produce the engines in India, ahead of PM Modi's visit to the US later this month. The American defence company will be agreeing with India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) to co-produce jet engines in the South Asian nation. The technology will power India's fighter jet program once the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) is operationalised. 

GE and HAL had agreed to manufacture jet engines in 2012, but the deal could not take off as the government wanted higher levels of technology transfer, as per the report. It added that an agreement on higher levels of technology transfer has been agreed upon and no other ally has this kind of an agreement with the US. Modalities of technology transfer, timelines and payment mechanisms are being discussed before the final agreement is inked during the Prime Minister's visit to Washington DC between June 21 and 24, 2023, the report said.

The central government is yet to announce a site for the co-production of GE jet engines in India. However, HAL already has an engine division in Koraput, Odisha and this could be one of the locations under consideration. Sources have also said that 500-600 Indian Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) could benefit from this agreement.

Discussions on possible collaboration on jet engines took place in February during NSA Ajit Doval's meeting with his counterpart Jake Sullivan. While the deal will need the approval of the US Congress, an agreement has been reached at the highest political level. The deal contours were reviewed by Defence Minister Rajnath Singh and US Secretary for Defence Lloyd Austin, during the latter's visit to India this week.

HAL's Profitability and Order Book

ICICI Securities pointed out that HAL has a healthy order book of around INR 82,000 crore which is 3 times its FY23 revenues, led by large-scale orders in manufacturing aircraft and helicopters. The order book of HAL provides high revenue visibility in the medium to long term while indicating HAL’s strong competitive and strategic positioning. During the year fresh contracts of around INR 26,000 crore were received which includes manufacturing contracts for 70 HTT -40, 6 Do-228 Aircraft and PSL V launch vehicles. The Government of India’s (GoI) increased focus on indigenisation with the Make in India policy and mandatory offset policy for defence procurement by GoI, augur well for the company’s future growth.

HAL, the largest defence PSU in India, is engaged in designing, developing, manufacturing, repairing, overhauling, upgrading and servicing a wide range of products including aircraft, helicopters, aero-engines, avionics, accessories and aerospace structures.

During the March quarter, the company reported an 8.8% YoY decline in its net profit to INR 2,831.18 crore from INR 3,105.17 crore in the same period last year. The company’s revenue from operations surged 8% YoY to INR 12,495 crore as against INR 11,558 crore in the same period last year. The company’s EBITDA (earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation) surged by 29% in the January to March period of FY24 as against INR 2,495 crore in the same period last year.

About HAL

The state-owned aerospace and defence firm, whose customers include the Indian Army, Navy and Air Force, and aerospace corporations Airbus and Boeing, said its order book position stood at INR 817.84 billion for the quarter. HAL is engaged in the design, development, manufacture, repair, overhaul, upgrade and servicing of a wide range of products including, aircraft, helicopters, aero-engines, avionics, accessories, aerospace structures and Industrial Marine Gas turbines.

The Indian government currently owns a 71.65% stake in HAL as of March-end, according to exchange data, having sold 3.5% of its holdings in a deal that fetched it INR 28.67 billion in the last fiscal year. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is an Indian public-sector aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Bangalore. Established on 23 December 1940, HAL is one of the oldest and largest aerospace and defence manufacturers in the world. HAL began aircraft manufacturing as early as 1942 with licensed production of Harlow PC-5, Curtiss P-36 Hawk and Vultee A-31 Vengeance for the Indian Air Force. 

HAL currently has 11 dedicated Research and development (R&D) centres and 21 manufacturing divisions under 4 production units spread across India. HAL is managed by a board of directors appointed by the President of India through the Ministry of Defence, Government of India. HAL is currently involved in designing and manufacturing of fighter jets, helicopters, jet engines and marine gas turbine engines, avionics, software development, spares supply, overhauling and upgrading of Indian military aircraft. The HAL HF-24 Marut fighter bomber was India’s first indigenous fighter aircraft.